Literature Recommendations


EFSUMB guidelines:

ECCO-ESGAR guidelines:


Review articles:

  • Systematic review: the use of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis, assessment of activity and abdominal complications of Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011. Link:
  • Bowel Ultrasonography in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Dig Dis 2015. Link:
  • Bowel Ultrasonography in the Management of Crohn's Disease. A Review with Recommendations of an International Panel of Experts. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2016.  Link:
  • How to perform gastrointestinal ultrasound: Anatomy and normal findings. World J Gastroenterol 2017. Link:
  • The use of ultrasound in inflammatory bowel disease. Ann Gastroenterol 2017. Link:
  • Intestinal ultrasound and management of small bowel Crohn’s disease. Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2018.                     Link:
  • Gastrointestinal ultrasound in inflammatory bowel disease: an underused resource with potential paradigm-changing application. Gut 2018.                                                     Link:
  • Systematic Review: Clinical Utility of Gastrointestinal Ultrasound in the Diagnosis, Assessment and Management of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis. J Crohns Colitis 2020.            Link:
  • Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohn’s Colitis 2021.                                          Link:
  • Ultrasonography in inflammatory bowel disease – So far we are? United European Gastroenterol J. 2022.       Link:
  • Defining Transabdominal Intestinal Ultrasound Treatment Response and Remission in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Systematic Review and Expert Consensus Statement .J Crohns Colitis 2022.                                                     Link:
  • The knowledge and skills needed to perform intestinal ultrasound for inflammatory bowel diseases-an international Delphi consensus survey. Aliment Pharmacol Ther                     Link:
  • Intestinal Ultrasound for Differentiating Fibrotic or Inflammatory Stenosis in Crohn’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Crohns Colitis 2022.
  • Ultrasound elastography in inflammatory bowel diseases: a systematic review of accuracy compared to histopathological assessment. J Crohns Colitis 2022.
  • The Impact of Intestinal Ultrasound on the Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: From Established Facts Toward New Horizons. Front Med (Lausanne). 2022.                                                     Link:


Original articles:

  • Clinic-based Point of Care Transabdominal Ultrasound for Monitoring Crohn's Disease: Impact on Clinical Decision Making. J Crohns Colitis 2015. Link:
  • TRUST study: Use of Intestinal Ultrasound to Monitor Crohn's Disease Activity. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017. Link:
  • Real-time Interobserver Agreement in Bowel Ultrasonography for Diagnostic Assessment in Patients With Crohn's Disease: An International Multicenter Study. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018.         Link:
  • Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance enterography and small bowel ultrasound for the extent and activity of newly diagnosed and relapsed Crohn's disease (METRIC): a multicentre trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018. Link:
  • IBUS comment to the METRIC study - Link:
  • Accuracy of Humanitas Ultrasound Criteria in Assessing Disease Activity and Severity in Ulcerative Colitis: A Prospective Study. J Crohns Colitis 2018. Link:
  • Intestinal ultrasound for monitoring therapeutic response in patients with ulcerative colitis: results from the TRUST&UC study. Gut 2020.
  • A reliability study-strong inter-observer agreement of an expert panel for intestinal ultrasound in ulcerative colitis. Journal of Crohn's and Colitis 2021.
  • Point-of-care Intestinal Ultrasound in IBD Patients: Disease Management and Diagnostic Yield in a Real-world Cohort and Proposal of a Point-of-care Algorithm. J Crohns Colitis. 2022. Link:
  • Early Ultrasound Response and Progressive Transmural Remission After Treatment With Ustekinumab in Crohn's Disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022.
  • Early intestinal ultrasound predicts intravenous corticosteroid response in hospitalized patients with severe ulcerative colitis. J Crohns Colitis. 2022.
  • Infliximab Trough Levels Are Associated With Transmural Sonographic Healing in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2022. Link:
  • Intestinal ultrasound early on in treatment follow-up predicts endoscopic response to anti-TNFα treatment in Crohn's Disease. J Crohns Colitis 2022. Link:
  • Ultrasonography Tight Control and Monitoring in Crohn's Disease During Different Biological Therapies: A Multicenter Study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022. Link:
  • Intestinal Ultrasound Is Accurate to Determine Endoscopic Response and Remission in Patients With Moderate to Severe Ulcerative Colitis: A Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Study. Gastroenterology 2022. Link:


IUS activity scores:

  • A Simple Ultrasound Score for the Accurate Detection of Inflammatory Activity in Crohn's Disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2017.
  • The Simple Pediatric Activity Ultrasound Score (SPAUSS) for the Accurate Detection of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
  • Development and Validation of a Simple Ultrasound Activity Score for Crohn’s Disease. J Crohns Colitis 2020.Link:
  • Expert consensus on optimal acquisition and development of the International Bowel Ultrasound Segmental Activity Score (IBUS-SAS): a reliability and inter-rater variability study on intestinal ultrasonography in Crohn's Disease. J Crohns Colitis 2020. Link:
  • Standardisation of intestinal ultrasound scoring in clinical trials for luminal Crohn’s disease. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2021.
  • Systematic Review: Gastrointestinal Ultrasound Scoring Indices for Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis 2021. Link:
  • Milan ultrasound criteria are accurate in assessing disease activity in ulcerative colitis: external validation. United European Gastroenterol J. 2021.
  • Intestinal Ultrasound to Assess Disease Activity in Ulcerative Colitis: Development of a novel UC-Ultrasound Index. J Crohns Colitis 2021.



  • Bowel ultrasound measurements in healthy children - systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatr Radiol. 2020. Link:
  • Intestinal Ultrasound in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Promising, but Work in Progress. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2022.
  • The child’s perception on monitoring inflammatory bowel disease activity. Eur J Pediatr. 2022. Link:
  • Intestinal Ultrasound for the Pediatric Gastroenterologist: A Guide for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Monitoring in Children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2022. Link:
  • A Healthcare Physician Can Be Trained to Perform Intestinal Ultrasound in Children With Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2022. Link:
  • Intestinal Ultrasound to Assess Ulcerative Colitis Disease Activity in Children: External Validation and Comparison of 2 Intestinal Ultrasound Activity Indices. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2022. Link:



  • Monitoring Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Pregnancy Using Gastrointestinal Ultrasonography. J Crohns Colitis 2020.
  • Intestinal Ultrasound to Evaluate Treatment Response During Pregnancy in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 2022.


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